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10. Balarajan and Tjahjono 2010 Balarajan, M. K and Tjahjono, A. 2010. Rising spiritual values: Malaysian Film in the Global Market, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [Crossref] : 412; Radia 2006 Radia, Andriani (2006). Nuansu: Penggantian Paradigma Melainkan Paradigma Reformasi Pancara, Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Mandiri. [Google Scholar] : 173; Suksmaji 2009 Suksmaji, Astri (2009). Horor?: Pahalaan, Etnos, dan Penegakan, Jakarta: Pustaka Ekdharta.
Migration has given rise to a number of contemporary lifestyles and self-identifications, some of which are reflected in the popular entertainment culture. New media such as print, film, and video have served as major platforms to disseminate ideas about lifestyles in urban migrant communities. Thus, in an effort to explore the question of “what are modern lifestyles,” this study attempts to explore the image of city slickers and their varieties of lifestyles as reflected in print and film texts. While no segmentation of migrants can speak for all migrants, this study attempts to show how migrant individuals interact and respond to changes in lifestyle by examining texts that portray them.
1. Lai (1997) mentions in her study how horror films are still plays “the society’s fears”. In this regard, there are many films have been produced from horror film genre. In Indonesia, there are a lot of horror films that has been produced, firstly is about Indonesian’s second most folk tradition, agoris which terrorize to society. One of the scary is the ghost, one of the representative of ghosts is the rahau. The efek mimi one of the most representative of these films is the 1997 horror film titled Mangkujiwo by Nellie Jabar. This film is a remake of Babad Tanah Jawi horror film which was first produced in 1994
22. Kuntilanak, a minor but powerful ghost, is the theme of the government to start a religious discourse to inject the concept of religion to the society as a way of binding and to overcome social crises. Undoubtedly, the Indonesian government wanted to reconcile the ancient belief of South Sulawesi people with the modern reformist ideology through the medium of film, which is the nation’s cultural culture industry.
The actor Muharrem in Mangkujiwo (2007) Mangkujiwo. 14 November 2007. [Google Scholar] : Biru Kecil. We also know through the interpretation of Bujar Bejo, the actor in the film Mangkujiwo, about the historical story of Kuntilanak. The film was produced by Bintang Pelangi (2010) Bintang pelangi. 19 February 2010. [Google Scholar] : Biru Kecil. According to the interpretation of Bujar Bejo, the purpose of the film Mangkujiwo was to interpret the historical story about Kuntilanak. The meaning of the story was to promote the image of Kuntilanak, a non-political figure, a representation of authenticity. Kuntilanak is originally from Bali and had become a Kuntilanak after getting married to the prince of Palenggung. However, his wife was previously in love with a young man. Kuntilanak has a lot of grudges and violence to the point that if there is still anyone who tries to lie to his wife, he will be destroyed and put into the spirit world. Bintang Pelangi also described him as a figure with a lot of negative attitudes, such as being a comfort women for lazy people, sacrificing for knowledge. In spite of the fact that Kuntilanak had long-lasting intentions to have revenge, he also has that he doesn’t want to kill his wife. He can only kill the person he wants to kill. However, the husband of the queen hid his wife from Kuntilanak so Kuntilanak wasn’t able to have revenge for long. The film was one of the most controversial films and was banned by the minister of culture and the president for many years for its use of sexual themes and violent themes. The film is characterized as a film that has a lot of violence and is completely inspired by the supernatural. Interestingly enough, the project of this film is part of the moral of the same name. This moral is about how violence and bad attitudes bring a lot of harm to people. In the film Mangkujiwo, Kuntilanak goes to the spirit world and becomes a ghost that will kill his wife. In conclusion, the audience in this film knows that Kuntilanak isn’t real and this can be seen in the storytelling method of the film. The Indonesian society also plays a role in the public’s perception about this film. Kuntilanak is supposed to be a figure who has very strong and innocent intentions. However, this film shows that he is not quite as innocent as he is said to be, instead he is capable of being extremely violent and causing harm.