[FSX] Pacific Islands Simulation – Atolls Of Tuvalu Generator 🖳
[FSX] Pacific Islands Simulation – Atolls Of Tuvalu Generator
transmission and distribution losses are expected to remain relatively constant, with a variance for different islands depending on the topography. it is expected that the comparison of the different islands will provide a useful insight into the optimal deployment of renewable energy and it distributed energy solutions. the islands are broadly considered as those available, in terms of both space and elevation, for deployment of the it devices. higher islands with more flat land might be considered to hold a greater potential for deployment of it devices than the lower islands with sloped land.
the motivation is to introduce the concept of digital islands, in which digitally connected islands are networked together in an intelligent manner through an island link topology. this is to allow for the bidirectional flow of data between islands. this means that island-to-island communication can take place using the same airwaves that are available for radio communications. this would also allow communication to take place between islands when the islands are in range of a fixed radio station. in this sense, the link is topologically defined, with islands considered to be the primary units, and the island link the medium through which the primary units communicate.
as the secondary units, island links can also be connected together through a power distribution network with a network topology. for example, island links can be arranged in a tree structure to allow transmission from the highest to the lowest islands, and the level of network connectivity, or the quality of the link, can vary depending on both the island type and the island link. it is considered that the network topology should be an island link topology, with the islands serving as the primary units, which can be connected together via links. this means that the network would have a tree structure, with islands as the primary units and links as the medium. however, this is not considered to be possible in tuvalu. instead, it is considered that islands would become networked through the island link topology. since the island link is specifically designed to allow for transmission of data, it is able to be designed to support variable data-rate radio connections, from short-range communication to long-range transmission.
while the maketu atoll, tuvalu (map), is a prime example of the disastrous effects of coastal hazards and climate extremes, the so-called hawaian tsunami has been a wake-up call for many pacific islanders, prompting the construction of the melanesian economic community (mec) of six small island states. these states, as they relate to one another, are indonesia, papua new guinea, solomon islands, vanuatu, fiji, and tuvalu. the states are largely genetically similar, but each has developed their own unique political identity because of a unique historical development, large regional differences in language, education, development and culture, and the absence of any single political leadership. furthermore, the only way that the states can undertake joint projects is through a head of state, or president, to be, usually a family member of a state governor. this political model developed through the shared experience of natural disasters and climate-related risks.
environment of the pacific islands, showing the agricultural areas of the main islands and the high seas area of nauru, palau and kiribati. note also the polygonal nature of many of the main islands. as, american samoa; au, australia; ci, cook islands; fm, federated states of micronesia; fj, fiji; pg, png; pn, pitcairn; pw, palau; tk, tokelau; vu, vanuatu; wf, wallis and futuna.
atoll islands are among the places most vulnerable to climate change due to their low elevation above mean sea level. even today, some of these islands suffer from severe flooding generated by wind-waves, that will be exacerbated with mean sea-level rise. wave-induced flooding is a complex physical process that requires computationally-expensive numerical models to be reliably estimated, thus limiting its application to single island case studies. here we present a new model-based parameterisation for wave setup and a set of numerical simulations for the wave-induced flooding in coral reef islands as a function of their morphology, the manning friction coefficient, wave characteristics and projected mean sea level that can be used for rapid, broad scale (e.g. entire atoll island nations) flood risk assessments. we apply this new approach to the maldives to compute the increase in wave hazard due to mean sea-level rise, as well as the change in island elevation or coastal protection required to keep wave-induced flooding constant. while future flooding in the maldives is projected to increase drastically due to sea-level rise, we show that similar impacts in nearby islands can occur decades apart depending on the exposure to waves and the topobathymetry of each island. such assessment can be useful to determine on which islands adaptation is most urgently needed.